One of the most important disadvantages of molybdenum (Mo) and Mo-based alloys is low oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures. TZM is a well-known Mo-based alloy having a composition containing small quantities of titanium, zirconium and carbon. These additional elements provide superior properties to TZM; however, low oxidation resistance still prevents use of this alloy over 650 degrees C without protection. In the present work, ceramic-based layers were formed on the surface of TZM by spark plasma sintering method. B4C-Si and Al2O3-Si powder mixtures were used to form protective layers against oxidation. Ceramic-metal (TZM)-ceramic sandwich-type samples were prepared in a single step at constant temperature of 1420 degrees C, pressure (40 MPa) and various holding times (5-10 min) under vacuum atmosphere. Densification behavior, phase analysis, oxidation resistance, dynamic flame test performance and hardness of the samples were investigated. Ceramic-based layers were formed successfully on the surface of TZM without any crack or spallation and bonded with different kinds of diffusion layers depending on composition. Oxidation resistance and dynamic flame test performance of TZM were improved about 70%. The highest hardness values at the surface layers were measured as 32.7 GPa and 13.8 GPa for B4C-Si and Al2O3 additions, respectively.