A quantitative dynamic risk assessment for ship operation using the fuzzy FMEA: The case of ship berthing/unberthing operation

GÖKSU S., Arslan Ö.

Ocean Engineering, vol.287, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 287
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2023.115548
  • Journal Name: Ocean Engineering
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, Environment Index, ICONDA Bibliographic, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Berthing, Dynamic risk assessment, FMEA, Fuzzy expert system, Maritime safety, Operational risk
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Ships are exposed to static risks that stem from the nature of the operation as well as human, machine, and environmental factors and have a complex and multi-layered system that also contains dynamic risks. For this reason, maritime studies to reduce and prevent risks in ship operations continue by safety researchers. The present study proposes a quantitative maritime safety analysis based on Fuzzy Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) methodology to evaluate potential risks that may occur during ship operations. To demonstrate the practical application of the proposed approach, failure modes are determined in ship berthing/unberthing operations and prioritized according to risk values. According to the results, the failure modes which have higher risk rates are identified as Fatigue/Individual error, Very strong wind, Excessive heat, Low tide, Increase/decrease in ship speed. Finally, appropriate corrective or preventive actions are recommended to control failure modes that affect the safety of the ship and to reduce or eliminate the effects of these failures with a proactive approach. This paper theoretically contributes for marine safety inspectors, safety researchers, and HSEQ managers to identify potential hazards, effects, and consequences in case of berthing/unberthing operations.