The emergency service station (ESS) location problem has been widely studied in the literature since 1970s. There has been a growing interest in the subject especially after 1990s. Various models with different objective functions and constraints have been proposed in the academic literature and efficient solution techniques have been developed to provide good solutions in reasonable times. However, there is not any study that systematically classifies different problem types and methodologies to address them. This paper presents a taxonomic framework for the ESS location problem using an operations research perspective. In this framework, we basically consider the type of the emergency, the objective function, constraints, model assumptions, modeling, and solution techniques. We also analyze a variety of papers related to the literature in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the taxonomy and to get insights for possible research directions.