In this paper, recent progress with respect to the flotation chemistry of soluble salt minerals is reviewed, and some of the more relevant issues including the hydration states of ions, the interfacial phenomena of salt surfaces and the flotation behavior of selected soluble salts are discussed. Due to the high solubility, the flotation of most soluble salts has to be carried out in their saturated brines. Anecdotal evidence has suggested that the hydration states of the ions have significant influence on the physicochemical properties of the solutions, the surface charge and wetting characteristics of the minerals, the collector adsorption states and, further, the flotation behavior of the soluble salts. In this regard, reviewing past research findings, efforts are made to establish a correlation between the ion hydration states with the flotation behavior of the soluble salts. Further, advances in understanding the significance of colloid adsorption involved in the soluble salt flotation process are addressed, and future research efforts to understand the soluble salt flotation chemistry are suggested.