Solution blow spinning (SBS) is a maturing nanofiber fabrication technology. Over the past decade, there has been a growing interest in employing and developing this facile method of fabricating nanofibers, sourced from different materials to suit varied applications. For the first time, this review will provide a comprehensive overview of solution blow spinning, including the principles, materials, methods, and applications. We start with the principles of the SBS method, followed by a detailed account of the different precursor polymers (i.e., synthetic, biocompatible, and bio-based materials) and composites that have been used in the SBS of nanofibers. The proceeding section presents the known applications of nanofibers obtained through SBS which are discussed primarily in the areas of energy and electronics, biomedical, environmental, membrane separation, and, textile and smart material applications. We highlight the most important and recent advances related to SBS over the last ten years. Lastly, we give perspectives, challenges, opportunities, and new directions of the SBS technology.