A neutral ginger polysaccharide fraction (NGP) was isolated from ginger, and its primary structures and immunomodulatory activity were investigated. The results showed that NGP had a low molecular weight of 6305 Da. NGP principally consisted of glucose (93.88%) together with minor levels of galactose (3.27%) and arabinose (1.67%). Besides, results of methylation analysis and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that NGP was alpha-glucan which had the main chain of 1,4-linked alpha-D-Glcp and alpha-D-Glcp residues branched at C-6 position which was different from the common triple helical beta-glucans. NGP also displayed a remarkable immunological activity on the RAW264.7 cells in vitro. It could significantly enhance the proliferation of macrophages without cytotoxicity and increase the production of immune substances (NO, TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6). The secretion at the concentration of 200 mu g/mL was 29.41 mu M, 1496.71, 44.30 and 1889.83 pg/mL for each substance, respectively. The results indicated that NGP could be a potential immune agent and might provide meaningful information for further chain conformation and immune mechanism research.