Valorization and Repurposing of Citrus limetta Fruit Waste for Fabrication of Multifunctional AgNPs and Their Diverse Nanomedicinal Applications

Sher A., Khalil A. T., Dogan N., Ayaz M., Ahmad K.

Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12010-023-04646-z
  • Journal Name: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Citrus limetta, ESR, Fruit waste, Nanomedicine, PPMS, SEM, Silver nanoparticles, XRD
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: No


Herein we propose an ecofriendly process for the biofabrication of AgNPs by applying fruit waste of Citrus limetta. The aqueous extracts from the peels of the fruit were used as green chelating and stabilizing agents. Structural, optical, vibrational, morphological, and magnetic properties were established using UV–Vis (ultraviolet visible spectroscopy), XRD (X-rays diffraction), FTIR (Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy), EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy), SEM (scanning electron microscopy), ESR (electron spin resonance), and PPMS (physical property management system), while the thermal properties were established using TGA/DTG (thermal gravimetric analysis/derivative thermogravimetry). XRD pattern revealed intense peaks with single-phase purity, while the Debye–Scherrer approximation revealed an average crystallite size of 33.18 nm. The W–H plot revealed the size of 55.2 nm and strain 2.68 × 10−4. FTIR spectra revealed the involvement of different functional groups and major IR vibrations were observed at 2329 cm−1, 2092 cm−1, 1794 cm−1, 1268 cm−1, and 754 cm−1. TGA/DTG revealed major weight loss events at 240 °C and 360 °C. SEM revealed spherical or quasi-spherical morphology, while EDS confirmed the presence of elemental silver. The M-H behavior for all measurement temperature shows diamagnetic behavior. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed a high proportion of free electrons. Furthermore, the pharmacognostic and nanomedicinal potential CL-AgNPs was established using multiple in vitro and in vivo bioassays. The in vivo wound healing assays in mice revealed excellent healing potential which were similar to positive control. The percent wound healing is reported to be 93% on the 14th day of incision after application of CL-AgNPs. Bioassays were performed to assess enzyme inhibition potential of the CL-AgNPs for Alzheimer disease and antidiabetic applications. The AChE and BChE potential of the CL-AgNPs was highest at 1000 µg mL−1, i.e., 92% and 56%, respectively. The α-glucosidase inhibition potential for the CL-AgNPs was higher as compared to the α-glucosidase, while the DPPH free radical scavenging was reported to be 70% to 11% at varying concentrations between 1000 and 62.5 µg mL−1. Overall, our results indicate that the waste fruit peels can be a sustainable and eco-friendly resource of synthesis of the multifunctional nanoparticles.