The degradation and mineralization of the nonionic surfactant octylphenol ethoxylate (OPEO), commercially known as Triton (TM) X-45, by the peroxymonosulfate (PMS)/UV-C process were investigated. Three different toxicity tests (Daphnia magna, Vibrio fischeri and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) as well as the Yeast Estrogen Screen (YES) bioassay were undertaken to evaluate the potential toxic and estrogenic effects of OPEO and its oxidation products. OPEO removal was very fast and complete after 7 min via PMS/UV-C treatment under the investigated reaction conditions (OPEO = 20 mg L-1 (47 mu M); TOC = 12 mg L-1; PMS = 2.5 mM; initial reaction pH = 6.5; applied UV-C dose = 21 Wh L-1). TOC removal also proceeded rapidly; a gradual decrease was observed resulting in an overall TOC removal of 84%. The toxic responses of PMS/UV-C treated OPEO solutions varied according to the test organism used in the bioassay. Daphnia magna was found to be most sensitive to aqueous OPEO, whereas Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata appeared to be the least sensitive one. Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri tests revealed that the inhibitory effect of OPEO decreased significantly during the course of treatment. On the other hand, PMS/UV-C oxidation products exhibited a high toxic effect towards Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (around 60%). YES test results underlined the need for improving the PMS/UV-C treatment performance to remove the estrogenic activity of OPEO and its oxidation products.