In this study, superstructure construction and maintenance costs of highway and railway, the most important means of ground transport in urban passenger transportation in Istanbul were analyzed. In this research, only superstructure costs were taken into consideration, infrastructure costs were left out. For the research to be significant, first of all, superstructure construction and maintenance costs were calculated within the whole area these two systems cover. After that, the services which will be provided to passenger transportation by these systems, namely, expected traffic values in this period were determined. Consequently, the costs for a unit traffic and unit area were found out. The costs of highways were found higher than railway for m(2) and passenger.km except for superstructure construction costs. These results were examined by stating their causes and rates.