Comparative Evaluation of Multiline TRL and 2X-Thru De-Embedding Implementation Methods on Printed Circuit Board Measurements

Ayrac T., Ozdemirli A., Apaydin E., Ozanoglu K., Yazgı M.

19th International Conference on Synthesis, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Methods, and Applications to Circuit Design, SMACD 2023, Funchal, Portugal, 3 - 05 July 2023 identifier

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Full Text
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/smacd58065.2023.10192140
  • City: Funchal
  • Country: Portugal
  • Keywords: 2X-Thru calibration, De-embedding, fixture removal, Multiline method, TRL
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This work presents a comprehensive study of two different de-embedding techniques: the Multiline method and the 2X-Thru fixture removal. The methods are compared in terms of calibration standard requirements, de-embedding methodology, fixture removing accuracy, and de-embedding results. The comparison reveals that the accuracy of the Multiline method strictly depends on the impedance variation between calibration standards. The 2X-Thru with impedance correction, on the other hand, is more prone to impedance variation since it relies on a single calibration standard, which also eases the measurement routine and reduces the complexity. One important aim of this study is to contribute to the development of open-source de-embedding tools since the validity and accuracy of commercial tools cannot be evaluated for academic purposes.