Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
The main purpose of this study is to understand the energy consumption profiles of different building types by identifying and comparing their energy consumption parameters with their sensitivities to each other while indicating the long-term energy consumption implications on energy cost and CO2 emissions. A duplex house, apartment building, convention center, and school building were selected to develop dynamic simulation models for the investigation. The annual electric and gas demand of buildings were calculated and compared based on their energy usage intensity (kWh/m2), emission intensity (kg CO2/m2), and cost intensity (USD/m2) with their sensitivity to selected parameters. Further, the 50-year longevity of the buildings that include the selected materials’ production and demolition stages were included to estimate the lifetime. Also, retrofitting strategies including renewable technology integration were developed for each building type separately based on their energy concerns. The average energy consumption of parameters from highest to lowest are space heating, area lights, equipment, space cooling, hot water, fans, and pumps, respectively. The critical primary energy consumption of the educational building and convention center is 43% and 38% from equipment and 30% from space heating for residential buildings. A large portion of the emission is allocated to energy consumption during the lifetime of buildings, mainly due to electricity consumption. The energy costs mainly are also electricity related. Although the effects of retrofit strategies are different depending on the energy behavior of buildings, the most effective scenario is envelope retrofitting, followed by lighting improvement.