The biological properties of calcium phosphate-derived materials are strongly influenced by changes in Ca/P stoichiometry and grain size, which have not yet been fully elucidated to date. For this reason, the objective of this in vitro study was to understand osteoblast (bone forming cells) adhesion on nanoparticulate calcium phosphates of various Ca/P ratios. A group of calcium phosphates with Ca/P ratios between 0.5 and 2.5 were obtained by adjusting the Ca/P stoichiometry of the initial reactants necessary for calcium phosphate precipitation. For samples with 0.5 and 0.75 Ca/P ratios, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and Ca2P2O7 phases were observed. In contrast, for samples with 1.0 and 1.33 Ca/P ratios, the only stable phase was TCP. For samples with 1.5 Ca/P ratios, the TCP phase was dominant, however, small amounts of the hydroxyapatite (HA) phase started to appear. For samples with 1.6 Ca/P ratios, the HA phase was dominant. Last, for samples with 2.0 and 2.5 Ca/P ratios, the CaO phase started to appear in the HA phase, which was the dominant phase. Moreover, the average nanometer grain size, porosity (%), and the average pore size decreased in general with increasing Ca/P ratios. Most importantly, results demonstrated increased osteoblast adhesion on calcium phosphates with higher Ca/P ratios (up to 2.5). In this manner, this study provided evidence that Ca/P ratios should be maximized (up to 2.5) in nanoparticulate calcium phosphate formulations to increase osteoblast adhesion, a necessary step for subsequent osteoblast functions such as new bone deposition. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.