The effects of bioaugmentation with immobilized Penicillium restrictum on the removal efficiency of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), erythromycin (ERY) and tetracycline (TC) antibiotics as well as membrane biofouling was studied using hollow-fiber membrane bioreactor (HF-MBR). Bioaugmentation with P. restrictum led to a significant change in the antibiotic removal efficiency and relative abundance of aerobic microbial community, most probably as a result of its quorum quenching activity. Furthermore, in addition to its role in the increase of SMX and ERY removal efficiencies and the decrease of their sorption on solid phase, bioaugmentation significantly reduced the transmembrane pressure which in turn reduced membrane clogging. The most abundant phyla in sludge and biofilm samples in the presence of P. restrictum were observed to be Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Differences in bacterial compositions and their specificity in biodegradation of antibiotics in different reactors showed that bacteria were specifically selected under the pressure of antibiotics and growing fungus.