The main objective of this study is to provide more data on the effects of expanded perlite on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of lightweight concrete. In the experimental program, mixtures were prepared by partially replacing natural aggregate by expanded perlite and as a result, unit weights of lightweight concretes in fresh state varied between 700 and 2000 kg/m(3). Water to cement ratio was kept constant in all mixtures. Compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and capillarity coefficient of the mixtures were determined. Thermal conductivity of the specimens was also obtained. Test results show that the compressive strength and modulus of elasticity decreases with increasing in perlite content. Water absorption and sorptivity coefficient, however, increase with the higher perlite contents. The test results indicate that the thermal conductivity is substantially improved with the use of perlite and a strong relationship between thermal conductivity and unit weight is obtained. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.