Weigh-in-Motion load effects and statistical approaches for development of live load factors

Yanik A., Higgins C.

STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS, vol.76, pp.1-15, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 76
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.12989/sem.2020.76.1.001
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-15
  • Keywords: bridges, load rating, weigh-in-motion, truck loadings, live load factors, BRIDGE, STATE, TRUCK, MODEL, LONG
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The aim of this paper is to simply present live load factor calculation methodology formulation with the addition of a simple new future load projection procedure to previously proposed two methods. For this purpose, Oregon Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) data were used to calculate live load factors by using WIM data. These factors were calculated with two different approaches and by presenting new simple modifications in these methods. A very simple future load projection method is presented in this paper. Using four different WIM sites with different average daily truck traffic (ADTT) volume, and all year data, live load factors were obtained. The live load factors, were proposed as a function of ADTT. ADTT values of these sites correspond to three different levels which are approximately ADTT= 5,000, ADTT = 1,500 and ADTT <= 500 cases. WIM data for a full year were used from each site in the calibration procedure. Load effects were projected into the future for the different span lengths considering five-year evaluation period and seventy-five-years design life. The live load factor for ADTT=5,000, AASHTO HS20 loading case and five-year evaluation period was obtained as 1.8. In the second approach, the methodology established in the Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE) was used to calibrate the live load factors. It was obtained that the calculated live load factors were smaller than those in the MBE specifications, and smaller than those used in the initial calibration which did not convert to the gross vehicle weight (GVW) into truck type 3S2 defined by AASHTO equivalents.