The Evolution of the REE-Bearing Özvatan Nepheline Syenite-Carbonatite Complex, Central Turkey: Mineralogical, Geochemical, and Stable Isotopic Approaches

Ünlüer A. T., Budakoglu M., Doner Z., Abdelnasser A. A. A.

Minerals, vol.13, no.5, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/min13050667
  • Journal Name: Minerals
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: carbonatites, Central Anatolia, REE-enrichments, Turkey, Özvatan
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Carbonatite complexes and associated fenite zones are famous for their high-grade rare metal ores. The carbonatite–fenite complexes generally contain high concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREE), thorium (Th), and uranium (U). While most carbonatites are closely related to continental rift zones, some complexes can be observed in post-collisional tectonic environments. The Özvatan nepheline syenite–carbonatite complex is an example of post-collisional carbonatitic magmatism in Central Anatolia, Turkey. The magmatic suite is generally composed of silica-undersaturated ultra-alkaline rocks and carbonatite dikes accompanied by high-intensity fenite zones. The carbonatites of the complex are generally dominated by coarse-grained calcite minerals accompanied by fluorite phenocrysts and may also contain minor amounts of rock-forming silicate minerals. The metasomatic aureole zones (fenites) are mainly composed of euhedral nephelines, K-feldspars, aegirines, augites, and garnets. Carbonatites of the Özvatan complex show enrichments in Ca and F with depletion of alkaline (K and Na) elements. Carbonatites and fenite zones of the Özvatan complex host a variety of incompatible elements, including La, Ce, Nd, Th, U, and Nb. The isotopic composition and general geochemical properties of carbonatites in the study area represent mantle-derived carbonatites rather than crustal limestones/skarns.