Near-Infrared Free-Radical and Free-Radical-Promoted Cationic Photopolymerizations by In-Source Lighting Using Upconverting Glass

Kocaarslan A., Tabanlı S., Eryürek G., Yağcı Y.

ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION, vol.56, no.46, pp.14507-14510, 2017 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 56 Issue: 46
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/anie.201707944
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.14507-14510
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A method is presented for the initiation of free-radical and free-radical-promoted cationic photopolymerizations by in-source lighting in the near-infrared (NIR) region using upconverting glass (UCG). This approach utilizes laser irradiation of UCG at 975 nm in the presence of fluorescein (FL) and pentamethyldiethylene triamine (PMDETA). FL excited by light emitted from the UCG undergoes electron-transfer reactions with PMDETA to form free radicals capable of initiating polymerization of methyl methacrylate. To execute the corresponding free-radical-promoted cationic polymerization of cyclohexene oxide, isobutyl vinyl ether, and N-vinyl carbazole, it was necessary to use FL, dimethyl aniline (DMA), and diphenyliodonium hexafluorophosphate as sensitizer, coinitiator, and oxidant, respectively. Iodonium ions promptly oxidize DMA radicals formed to the corresponding cations. Thus, cationic polymerization with efficiency comparable to the conventional irradiation source was achieved.