A novel polyethersulfone (PES) nanocomposite membrane incorporated with lanthanum vanadate (LaVO3) nanosheets was fabricated based on phase inversion approach. The morphology and the performance of the fabricated nanocomposite membranes were systematically studied by ATR FTIR, SEM, AFM, porosity, water contact angle, antifouling and rejection measurements. The resulting membranes showed an asymmetric structure with finger-like pores in which the surface roughness declined by adding different dosages of LaVO3 nanosheets. Contact angle measurements proved that the hydrophilicity of the nanocomposite membranes significantly increased. Furthermore, the water flux of the resulting nanocomposite membranes markedly enhanced due to the nanosheets incorporation. Moreover, nanocomposite membranes showed remarkable antifouling properties (flux recovery ratio similar to 85%) in contrast with the bare PES (flux recovery ratio similar to 60%). The high retention of Solazol Red SP 3B (similar to 99%) and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) (similar to 99%) as well as the high permeation flux of the fabricated membrane unveiled the multifunctional character of the nanocomposite membrane for purification of dyes and proteins.