This study reviews the advances in the field of strengthening damaged concrete columns with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP). As is commonly known, strengthening a concrete column is a way to restore or enhance its capacity. Strengthening of columns with external FRP jackets is considered as an effective and attractive technique due to its superior properties, such as corrosion resistance and strength-to-weight ratio, among others. However, there are many parameters that may adversely affect the efficiency of the FRP-confined concrete columns, like the presence of damage in the concrete column. In this paper, an extensive literature review is carried out to evaluate the influence of the damage on the efficiency of strengthening with FRP jacketing. The damage in the concrete columns can be attributed to various causes, for example, excessive preloading, corrosion or fire exposure. The effect of damage is assessed in conjunction with different key parameters. In addition, a number of proposed models for representing stress-strain relationship of FRP-confined damaged concrete columns are discussed.