Research and development (R&D) is one of the topics drawing great concern from researchers and practitioners. R&D is important for many of the areas such as pharmaceutical and medical industry, technology, and manufacturing. On the other hand, the sophisticated nature of the real life problems and its long computational time led researchers to develop intelligent systems. Intelligent systems have been used in many of the R&D areas since they give more reliable and consistent solutions when compared to the traditional solution techniques. In this pursuit, the chapter focuses on analyzing intelligent systems from a broader perspective considering a various research and development areas. For this aim, a comprehensive literature review from the years mainly between 2000 and 2014 is conducted. From the literature, it is observed that there are a large number of studies from 2010 to 2014. The motivation to conduct this chapter is to contribute to the literature by presenting an extensive literature review and making a synthesis with regard to intelligent systems in research and development.