International Conference on Environment: Survival and Sustainability, Nicosia, CYPRUS, 19 - 24 February 2007, pp.1409-1420
This paper presents a comprehensive framework for determining the interaction between transport, land-use and environmental impacts, where the developed concepts were tested using a case study. Two bridges, connecting Europe in Asia and their peripheries, and one of the alternatives of the newly planned third bridge at the Istanbul Metropolitan area were selected. The constructed transportation infrastructures had drastically changed the land-use profile and still have negative impacts on environment. After exploring the interaction systematically, possible impacts of the new bridge were investigated in this study. In order to detect changes and to predict the potential impacts, former land-use, transport infrastructure data were integrated with satellite images retrieved in 1963, 1987, 1992, and 2002. A four kilometers band was created referencing the center-line of the highway and this process was repeated for all satellite data. The land-use classes for exploring the interaction were settlement, transportation infrastructure, green land and forest, water and barren land. Within this range, the images were classified and results were compared statistically, in order to analyze the impact of transportation infrastructure. In order to explore the interaction between transport, land-use and environment, a spatio-temporal conceptual data model was designed to project the impacts of the newly planned third bridge. The results show that, easy accessibility caused by the development in transportation infrastructures created an attraction in this region and urban areas expanded rapidly. In year 1987, where the construction of the second bridge was recently begun, the 23% of the selected band was determined as settlement. In the year 1992, after the second bridge was full in operation, the percentage of the settlements was increased 12% only within a period of 5 years. In order to estimate the impacts of third bridge to the study area, the second bridge feet at the Asian side was selected. According to the classification results of the year 1963, the settlement class retrieved showed an increase of 339.5%, where 44.2% decrease was detected in the green areas. By means of the shortly described methodology and achieved results, integrated data collection and analysis was highly emphasized and the new proposed framework might be used effectively for aiding authorities and decision-makers to better understand the main causes of interaction, to inform them of the changing conditions and monitoring similar projects elsewhere.