Testing various scenarios to improve circulation in Golden Horn: A case study

Erdik T., Sen O., Orturk I.

MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN, vol.146, pp.598-607, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 146
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.05.051
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.598-607
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


The Golden Horn (GH), as a consequence of heavy domestic and industrial discharges from Alibeykoy and Kagithane creeks, was heavily polluted for more than 50 years. As a result, the upstream area was filled with debris and organic solids, which produced unbearable odour in the past due to anaerobic decomposition of the organic matter in the sedimented zone. Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB) decided to develop new strategies of estuary management and pollution reduction. To this end, Golden Horn Environment Protection Project (GHEPP) was developed to transport 3m(3)/s of clean Black Sea water into GH through a diversion tunnel to keep circulation ongoing throughout the year. In this study, the performance of GHEPP is assessed by developing various scenarios. The relationship between Black Sea diversion flow (BSDF) and residence time is derived. The numerical tests highlight that BSDF is effective in reducing the residence time in the upstream, while in the downstream, exchange flows with the Bosphorus Strait (BS) is effective. Besides, the current patterns in the GH and exchange flow discharges with the BS are determined for three unique flow conditions occurring in the strait: (1) two-layer flow pattern, (2) one-layer flow patterns in the southern direction, and (3) one-layer flow pattern in the northern direction.