High-Temperature Oxidation of Stellite 12 Hardfacings: Effect of Mo on Characteristics of Oxide Scale

Motallebzadeh A., Dilawary S. A. A., ATAR E., Çimenoğlu H.

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING AND PERFORMANCE, vol.28, no.1, pp.463-474, 2019 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11665-018-3796-6
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.463-474
  • Keywords: hardfacing, high-temperature oxidation, oxide scale, Raman spectroscopy, Stellite 12, COBALT-BASED ALLOY, WEAR-RESISTANCE, SLIDING WEAR, BEHAVIOR, CO, MICROSTRUCTURE, MOLYBDENUM, CORROSION, FE, PERFORMANCE
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to understand the oxide scale formation on the surfaces of commercial and Mo (10wt.%)-modified Stellite 12 hardfacings deposited on 4140 steel. For this purpose, samples of the hardfacings were isothermally oxidized in air at various temperatures in between 500 and 900 degrees C for 30 h. As a result of changes in the microstructure upon Mo addition, about 50% higher mass gain at all oxidation temperatures was observed. The characteristics of the developed oxide scales were examined by utilizing Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The oxide scale formed over Stellite 12 consisted of CoO-, Co3O4- and Cr2O3-type oxides, while additionally CoMoO4-type complex oxide was detected on Mo-modified hardfacing, more likely at the alloy-scale interface. On the basis of findings of isothermal oxidation tests, the formation mechanisms of this complex oxide imposing better wear resistance as reported in our previous studies were explained during high-temperature wear testing, i.e., dynamic oxidation conditions.