Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of intraperitoneal single dose piroxicam and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) on prevention of adhesion reformation in the rat uterine horn. This study was carried out in the Surgical Research Laboratory, at Erciyes University. A standard lesion was created by unipolar electrocautery in 72 uterine horns of 36 female Wistar-Albino rats. After 2 weeks, adhesion formation scores were determined and adhesiolysis was performed in the second-look laparotomy. Animals were then randomly assigned into three groups. Each group contained 12 animals: group 1 was the control group where no adjuvant was given; in group 2, 1 mi 50 U Axa IC/ml solution LMWH was applied to the horns postoperatively, and in group 3, 1 ml 2 mg/ml piroxicam solution was applied to the horns after adhesiolysis. Two weeks later the rats were killed and adhesion reformation was evaluated. The number of hems with adhesion formation and the cumulative scores were not significantly different among the three groups in the second-look laparotomies, but after third-look laparotomies, the number of horns with adhesion reformation, after calculating the extent, severity and total scores of adhesion reformation, was found to be significantly less in LMWH and piroxicam groups than in the control group. Also, the effectiveness of piroxicam was significantly greater in all scores of adhesion reformation than LMWH was. In conclusion, both LMWH and piroxicam doses reduce adhesion reformation in the rat uterine horn, but the effectiveness of piroxicam is significantly greater than that of LMWH.