High-performance nanostructured bio-based carbon electrodes for energy storage applications

Al Rai A., Yanılmaz M.

CELLULOSE, vol.28, no.9, pp.5169-5218, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 28 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10570-021-03881-z
  • Journal Name: CELLULOSE
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Compendex
  • Page Numbers: pp.5169-5218
  • Keywords: Biomass, Carbon, Electrochemical properties, Energy storage, Physical properties
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon precursor is a well-established and researched material for electrodes in energy storage applications due to its good physical properties and excellent electrochemical performance. However, in the fight of preserving the environment and pioneering renewable energy sources, environmentally sustainable carbon precursors with superior electrochemical performance are needed. Therefore, bio-based materials are excellent candidates to replace PAN as a carbon precursor. Depending on the design requirement (e.g. carbon morphology, doping level, specific surface area, pore size and volume, and electrochemical performance), the appropriate selection of carbon precursors can be made from a variety of biomass and biowaste materials. This review provides a summary and discussion on the preparation and characterization of the emerging and recent bio-based carbon precursors that can be used as electrodes in energy storage applications. The review is outlined based on the morphology of nanostructures and the precursor's type. Furthermore, the review discusses and summarizes the excellent electrochemical performance of these recent carbon precursors in storage energy applications. Finally, a summary and outlook are also given. All this together portrays the promising role of bio-based carbon electrodes in energy storage applications. Graphic abstract