Diaphragm action in floor structures is an important aspect that affects both local behaviors of individual members and consequently, the global response of a structure. The diaphragm action of a built structure, therefore needs to be compatible with the assumed diaphragm condition in the design phase to prevent unpredicted overloading of load bearing members in a seismic action. Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) is a cost-effective, lightweight and energy efficient material, and its usage as a construction material has rapidly increased in recent decades. However, there is a limited experience regarding the in-plane behavior of the floor structures made of AAC panels in terms of diaphragm action. In this paper, the in-plane response of AAC floors is experimentally investigated and the floor performance of a typical building is analytically investigated according to ASCE 7-16 (ASCE/SEI in Minimum design loads for buildings and other structures, The American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, 2016). Full-scale experiments carried out through loading AAC floors in lateral directions to the panels, either parallel or perpendicular, provided important information about the damage progress and overall performance of such floors. A number of finite element modeling techniques that are generally used for modeling of AAC floors were examined and then validated through comparisons with test results. Finally, the diaphragm condition of a three-story building made of AAC walls and floor panels was assessed. The results indicated that the AAC floors in the examined building can be idealized as rigid diaphragms according to ASCE 7-16.