Inventory of Shipping Emissions in Izmit Gulf, Turkey

Kilic A., Deniz C.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, vol.29, no.2, pp.221-232, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/ep.10365
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.221-232
  • Keywords: ship, emission, Izmit Gulf, air pollution, port, SHIPS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Ships are significant emissions sources in transportation sector. The environmental effects of shipping emissions become more serious because of insufficient international rules and inspections. Especially in inland waters, canals, straits, gulls, and port areas emissions effects on environment and health are more important. Izmit Gulf is the major industrial, transport, and inland water region which is affected from shipping emissions with 37 ports and industrial plants. In this study, NO(x), SO(2), CO(2), HC, and PM emission amounts from 11,645 ships called to Izmit Gulf in 2005. These emissions cure classified according to ships operation modes and ship types. Annual shipping emissions are estimated as 5,356 t yr(-1) for NO(x), 4,305 t yr(-1) for SO(2), 254,261 t yr(-1) for CO(2), 232 t yr(-1) for HC and 487 t yr(-1) for PM. To determine the most probably effected regions in the gulf the spatial distribution of NO(x) emissions within the Gulf region has been prepared in 1 x 1 Nm(2) (Nautical miles) grid cells based on ship movement data along the various routes. Ships in Izmit Gulf contribute to urban pollution with sulfur dioxide significantly. (C) 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 29: 221-232, 2010