Evaluating SLIM-based human error probability for ECDIS cybersecurity in maritime

Kayişoğlu G., Bolat P., Tam K.

JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION, vol.75, no.6, pp.1364-1388, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 75 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1017/s0373463322000534
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Artic & Antarctic Regions, Communication Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1364-1388
  • Keywords: ECDIS cybersecurity, human error probability, SLIM, maritime cybersecurity
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


There is an undeniable recognition that maritime cybersecurity risk management should involve process, technology, and people. However, thus far, most studies have focused on the technical and process aspects of maritime cybersecurity, more than on the human element. On a vessel, the Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS) is, amongst all the electronic devices on the bridge, a complex and indispensable maritime sociotechnical system that must consider both technical and human aspects. In the context of maritime cyber resilience, it is important to note that when developing strategies for maritime cybersecurity, one cannot only consider technical security measures and ignore human error, as this does not adhere to good cybersecurity practice. To address this, this study aims to identify the navigating officers' responsibilities for ECDIS cybersecurity and find the human error probabilities during these tasks via the SLIM-based human reliability analysis method. The outputs of this study provide an insight for industrial policies and best practices, in ECDIS cybersecurity risk management in terms of the behavioural and cultural aspects of shipping.