John Lawrence Smith's contributions to mineralogy, mining, and geochemical research in the Ottoman empire John Lawrence Smith'in Osmanli Imparatorluǧundaki Mineraloji, Maden ve Jeokimya Araştirmalarina Katkilari

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Göçmengil G., Gülmez F.

Osmanli Bilimi Arastirmalari, vol.22, no.2, pp.219-239, 2021 (Scopus) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.26650/oba.852435
  • Journal Name: Osmanli Bilimi Arastirmalari
  • Journal Indexes: Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.219-239
  • Keywords: Geochemistry, John Lawrence Smith, Medjidite, Mineralogy, Mining, Ottoman Empire, Thermal resources
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: No


© 2021 Osmanli Bilimi Arastirmalari. All rights reserved.Throughout the nineteenth century, the Ottoman Empire employed engineers, scientists, and experts from around the world as part of its industrial development policy. John Lawrence Smith (1818-1883) was one of these little-known experts. He was a versatile scientist educated with the Enlightenment philosophy of that period. In 1846, he was invited by Sultan Abdülmecid to improve cotton agriculture in the Ottoman Empire. He also conducted pioneering studies in mineralogy, mining, and geochemistry, as well as the investigation of thermal springs. As a mineralogist, he discovered ephesite, liebigite, and medjidite. Additionally, he discovered various mines and mineral deposits, performed pioneering studies in the thermal springs in western Anatolia and Palestine, and subsequently conducted chemical analyses on samples he collected from such springs. During his stay in Istanbul, he taught mineralogy and metallurgy courses in the iron and steel factory known today as Fişekhane. Smith left the Ottoman Empire in 1850.