Laboratory experiments of sediment transport from bare soil with a rill


Aksoy H. , Ünal N. E. , Çokgör Ş. , Gedikli A. , Yoon J., KOCA K., ...Daha Fazla

HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCES JOURNAL-JOURNAL DES SCIENCES HYDROLOGIQUES, cilt.58, ss.1505-1518, 2013 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 58 Konu: 7
  • Basım Tarihi: 2013
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1080/02626667.2013.824085
  • Dergi Adı: HYDROLOGICAL SCIENCES JOURNAL-JOURNAL DES SCIENCES HYDROLOGIQUES
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.1505-1518

Özet

Mathematical models developed for quantification of sediment transport in hydrological watersheds require data collected through field or laboratory experiments, but these are still very rare in the literature. This study aims to collect such data at the laboratory scale. To this end, a rainfall simulator equipped with nozzles to spray rainfall was constructed, together with an erosion flume that can be given longitudinal and lateral slopes. Eighty experiments were performed, considering microtopographical features by pre-forming a rill on the soil surface before the start of each experiment. Medium and fine sands were used as soil, and four rainfall intensities (45, 65, 85 and 105 mm h(-1)) were applied in the experiments. Rainfall characteristics such as uniformity, granulometry, drop velocity and kinetic energy were evaluated; flow and sediment discharge data were collected and analysed. The analysis shows that the sediment transport rate is directly proportional to rainfall intensity and slope. In contrast, the volumetric sediment concentration stays constant and does not change with rainfall intensity unless the slope changes. These conclusions are restricted to the conditions of experiments performed under rainfall intensities between and 105 mm h(-1) for medium and fine sands in a 136-cm-wide, 650-cm-long and 17-cm-deep erosion flume with longitudinal and lateral slopes varying between 5 and 20%.

Mathematical models developed for quantification of sediment transport in hydrological watersheds require data collected through field or laboratory experiments, but these are still very rare in the literature. This study aims to collect such data at the laboratory scale. To this end, a rainfall simulator equipped with nozzles to spray rainfall was constructed, together with an erosion flume that can be given longitudinal and lateral slopes. Eighty experiments were performed, considering microtopographical features by pre-forming a rill on the soil surface before the start of each experiment. Medium and fine sands were used as soil, and four rainfall intensities (45, 65, 85 and 105 mm h-1) were applied in the experiments. Rainfall characteristics such as uniformity, granulometry, drop velocity and kinetic energy were evaluated; flow and sediment discharge data were collected and analysed. The analysis shows that the sediment transport rate is directly proportional to rainfall intensity and slope. In contrast, the volumetric sediment concentration stays constant and does not change with rainfall intensity unless the slope changes. These conclusions are restricted to the conditions of experiments performed under rainfall intensities between and 105 mm h-1 for medium and fine sands in a 136-cm-wide, 650-cm-long and 17-cm-deep erosion flume with longitudinal and lateral slopes varying between 5 and 20%.