An accurate Kriging-based regional ionospheric model using combined GPS/BeiDou observations

Abdelazeem M., Çelik R. N., El-Rabbany A.

JOURNAL OF APPLIED GEODESY, vol.12, no.1, pp.65-76, 2018 (ESCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.1515/jag-2017-0023
  • Journal Indexes: Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.65-76
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this study, we propose a regional ionospheric model (RIM) based on both of the GPS-only and the combined GPS/BeiDou observations for single-frequency precise point positioning (SF-PPP) users in Europe. GPS/BeiDou observations from 16 reference stations are processed in the zero-difference mode. A least-squares algorithm is developed to determine the vertical total electron content (VTEC) bi-linear function parameters for a 15-minute time interval. The Kriging interpolation method is used to estimate the VTEC values at a 1 degrees x 1 degrees grid. The resulting RIMs are validated for PPP applications using GNSS observations from another set of stations. The SF-PPP accuracy and convergence time obtained through the proposed RIMs are computed and compared with those obtained through the international GNSS service global ionospheric maps (IGS-GIM). The results show that the RIMs speed up the convergence time and enhance the overall positioning accuracy in comparison with the IGS-GIM model, particularly the combined GPS/BeiDou-based model.