Relationship between organic matter, sulphur and phosphate contents in upper cretaceous marine carbonates (Karabogaz Formation, SE Turkey): Implications for early oil generation

İnan S., Ugur F. A., Inan T., YALÇIN M., Mann U.

Journal of Petroleum Geology, vol.33, no.4, pp.319-337, 2010 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/j.1747-5457.2010.00482.x
  • Journal Name: Journal of Petroleum Geology
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.319-337
  • Keywords: Adiyaman, Basin modelling, Early oil generation, Karabogaz Formation, Kinetic analysis, Late Cretaceous, Phosphatic carbonates, SE Turkey, Sulphur-rich kerogen
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the organic matter, sulphur and phosphate contents of Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates (Karabogaz Formation) in the Adiyaman Petroleum Province of SE Turkey. The results of organic geochemical analyses of core samples obtained from the Karabogaz Formation suggest that phosphate deposition occurred in settings where the water column was oxic to sub-oxic. However, the preservation of organic matter was favoured in anoxic environments. Moreover, the presence of sulphur (especially sulphur incorporated into kerogen) in organic matter-rich layers led to early oil generation. The results of stepwise py-gc analyses are consistent with a model in which, with increasing maturity, S-S and C-S bonds are the first to be eliminated from the macromolecular kerogen structure. Study of the maturity evolution of S-rich kerogen by laboratory pyrolysis implies that marginally mature and/or mature kerogen in the Karabogaz Formation, which may be classified as classic " Type II" kerogen, was most probably Type II/S at lower maturity stages. This enabled oil generation to occur at relatively shallow burial depths and relatively early stages of maturation. It is reasonable to conclude that Type II/S kerogen, overlooked in previous studies, was abundant in TOC-rich intervals in the Karabogaz Formation. Early generation (and expulsion) from Type II/S kerogen may have sourced the sulphur-rich oils in the Adiyaman area oilfields. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Scientific Press Ltd.