This study aimed to produce nanoparticles of poly (acrylonitrile-co-itaconic acid) (P (AN-co-IA)) containing conjugated polymers of pyrrole, N-Methylpyrrole, 2,5-dimethylpyrrole, and 1-(Triisopropylsilyl)pyrrole which were synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Nanocomposite structures of P (AN-co-IA)/polypyrrole and polymer of pyrrole derivatives were produced via in situ polymerization, and the nanoparticle formation were followed by morphologic and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic methods. Characterizations were made by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Raman spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for investigating the surface characteristics of the nanoparticles. Characterization results revealed that nanoparticles containing conjugated polymers had rougher surface than P (AN-co-IA) nanoparticles. It was also observed that the nanoparticles were well-distributed although having some agglomerates. Moreover, depending on the type of monomer of conjugated polymer, the shape and size of the produced nanoparticles differed by conjunction with their polymerization rate. These findings can be used as a startup information for production of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with desired properties after oxidation and carbonization, and as a high-performance and cost-effective flame and heat-resistant material (oxidized copolymers of polyacrylonitrile nanofiber).