This research investigates the application of calender extrusion as a novel technique in the production of cement fiberboards. The technique is successfully used in the production of non-structural building elements. The properties of the produced composites are discussed in this paper, particularly with regards the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber used in the study. The research involves an experiment to examine the mechanical properties and microstructure of the composites, and the results indicate that calender extrusion is a promising method for the production of thin and wide cement composites. These products can be shaped into various three-dimensional forms in the green state after processing. Based on the results, the mechanical properties of cement-bonded fiberboards vary with processing direction due to the alignment of fibers. Fiber content is the most significant factor with regards the tensile and flexural properties of fiber-reinforced cementitious products processed with calender extrusion. Moreover, processed composites have adequate screw head pull-through and freeze-thaw resistance.