Turkey IV. Scientific and Technical Petroleum Congress, Ankara, Turkey, 18 - 20 November 2020, pp.25-36
Turkey has been a major transit hub for oil and natural gas in the region owing to its Turkish Straits through which 3 million b/d flowed in 2013, and its critical geographic location between the oil-rich Central Asian and Middle East countries, and the European demand centers. Having around 296 million barrels of proved oil, Turkey produces only around 10% of its consumption that is approximately 700,000 barrels/day, importing most of its oil from Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria and Kazakhstan. Likewise, although Turkey has 218 billion cubic feet of natural gas reserves, the country produces only around 1% of its consumption that is about 1.7 trillion cubic feet per year. Russia and Iran are the major suppliers of natural gas followed by Azerbaijan, Algeria and Nigeria. Due to the increasing demands, infrastructure capacity is a potential concern even under sustainable supply conditions. With its growing economy and historical geopolitical significance in a very volatile and dynamic region, energy sustainability of Turkey depends on rigorous evaluation and utilization of domestic reserves, carried under a careful balance and planning of its position not as an importing but also a transit country for fossil fuels. In this study, the energy sustainability of Turkey in terms of oil and natural gas resources and their availability under developing relations within the region is evaluated followed by recommendations for future actions and planning in exploration, infrastructure and political relations.