Caffeine-loaded nano/micro-carriers: Techniques, bioavailability, and applications


Shaddel R., Akbari-Alavijeh S., Cacciotti I., Yousefi S., Tomas M., Çapanoğlu Güven E., ...More

CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2147143
  • Journal Name: CRITICAL REVIEWS IN FOOD SCIENCE AND NUTRITION
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Metadex, SportDiscus, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Bioavailability, caffeine, encapsulation, functional foods, nano, micro-delivery systems, SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES, IN-VITRO RELEASE, BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS, NANO-ENCAPSULATION, GOLD NANOPARTICLES, INCLUSION COMPLEX, DELIVERY-SYSTEMS, BETA-CAROTENE, INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES, RESPONSE METAANALYSIS
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Caffeine, as one of the most consumed bioactive compounds globally, has gained considerable attention during the last years. Considering the bitter taste and adverse effects of high levels of caffeine consumption, it is crucial to apply a strategy for masking the caffeine's bitter taste and facilitating its programmable deliverance within a long time. Other operational parameters such as food processing parameters, exposure to sunlight and oxygen, and gastrointestinal digestion could also degrade the phenolic compounds in general and caffeine in special. To overcome these challenges, various nano/micro-platforms have been fabricated, including lipid-based (e.g., nanoliposomal vehicles; nanoemulsions, double emulsions, Pickering emulsions; microemulsions; niosomal vehicles; solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers), as well as biopolymeric (e.g., nanoparticles; hydrogels, organogels, oleogels; nanofibers and nanotubes; protein-polysaccharide nanocomplexes, conjugates; cyclodextrin inclusion complexes) and inorganic (e.g., gold and silica nanoparticles) nano/micro-structures. In this review, the findings on various caffeine-loaded nano/micro-carriers and their potential applications in functional food products/supplements will be discussed. Also, the controlled release and bioavailability of encapsulated caffeine will be given, and finally, the toxicity and safety of encapsulated caffeine will be presented.