Photochemical reactions, particularly those involving photoinduced electron transfer processes, establish a substantial contribution to the modern synthetic chemistry, and the polymer community has been increasingly interested in exploiting and developing novel photochemical strategies. These reactions are efficiently utilized in almost every aspect of macromolecular architecture synthesis, involving initiation, control of the reaction kinetics and molecular structures, functionalization, and decoration, etc. Merging with polymerization techniques, photochemistry has opened up new intriguing and powerful avenues for macromolecular synthesis. Construction of various polymers with incredibly complex structures and specific control over the chain topology, as providing the opportunity to manipulate the reaction course. through spatiotemporal control, are one of the unique abilities of such photochemical reactions. This review paper provides a comprehensive account Of the fundamentals and applications of photoinduced electron transfer reactions in polymer synthesis. Besides traditional photopolymerization methods, namely free radical and cationic polymerizations, step-growth polymerizations involving electron transfer processes are included. In addition, controlled radical polymerization and "Click Chemistry" Methods have significantly evolved over the last few decades allowing access to narrow molecular weight distributions, efficient regulation of the molecular weight and the monomer sequence and incredibly complex architectures, and polymer modifications and surface patterning are covered. Potential applications including synthesis of block and graft copolymers, polymer-metal nanocomposites, various hybrid materials and bioconjugates, and sequence defined polymers through photoinduced electron transfer reactions are also investigated in detail.