MARINE GEOLOGY, vol.453, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)
Paleoceanography is usually based on fossilized populations of foraminiferal communities. However, it is insufficient for a detailed understanding of complex environmental changes such as fresh-brackish-saline water transitions as in the case of the chronological formation of the watermasses of the Sea of Marmara.Our study focuses on the results of comprehensive data on the detection of water changes that developed within the Sea of Marmara basin in the Late Pleistocene.In this article, the paleohydrographic development of the Sea of Marmara is presented through quantitative analyses of the mainly benthic and planktonic foraminifers and other benthic assemblages, including Crustacea, Bryozoa, Echinodermata, Cephalopoda, Osteichthyes and Porifera residues, and Mollusca shells.The study was carried out using 35 gravity core data obtained during the MAREM (Marmara Environmental Monitoring) project expeditions conducted between 2008 and 2018 in the Sea of Marmara. In addition, actual environmental parameters at each sampling station were simultaneously measured and evaluated, including water depth, temperature, salinity, pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations throughout the water column.This study proposes a new model enabling us to reconstruct the chronology of the marine connections between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea during the last 19.5 ka BP. In this context, the study aims to determine the phases of the Sea of Marmara water transitions based on the correlation of each selected environmental parameter on the foraminifera and other faunal communities found in the core intervals and the vital limit ranges of the individuals in these communities.In this context, the study aims to determine the phases of the Sea of Marmara water transitions based on the correlation of each selected environmental parameter on the Foraminifera, Ostracoda, and other faunal com-munities determined in core intervals regarding the vital limit ranges of those individuals in these communities.