Taking the Futian District as the research area, this study proposed an effective urban land cover mapping framework fusing optical and SAR data. To simplify the model complexity and improve the mapping results, various feature selection methods were compared and evaluated. The results showed that feature selection can eliminate irrelevant features, increase the mean correlation between features slightly, and improve the classification accuracy and computational efficiency significantly. The recursive feature elimination-support vector machine (RFE-sow) model obtained the best results, with an overall accuracy of 89.17% and a kappa coefficient of 0.8695, respectively. In addition, this study proved that the fusion of optical and SAR data can effectively improve mapping and reduce the confusion between different land covers. The novelty of this study is with the insight into the merits of multi-source data fusion and feature selection in the land cover mapping process over complex urban environments, and to evaluate the performance differences between different feature selection methods.