Tracking deformation velocity via PSI and SBAS as a sign of landslide failure: an open-pit mine-induced landslide in Himmetoğlu (Bolu, NW Turkey)

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Eker R., Aydın A., Görüm T.

Natural Hazards, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11069-024-06533-0
  • Journal Name: Natural Hazards
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, PAIS International, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Deformation velocity, DoD, InSAR, Landslide, Open-pit mining, UAV
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


A destructive landslide occurred in Himmetoğlu village in Göynük District (Bolu, NW Turkey) caused by open-pit coal mining activities. Field observations after the landslide failure and interviews with villagers motivated us to question the possibility of using satellite SAR data to detect precursory signs of failure with regard to deformation velocity. In this study, first, landslide deformations were mapped by applying the digital elevation model (DEM) of Difference (DoD) method using DEMs from aerial photography and UAV data. However, the primary aim was to track deformation velocity as a sign of landslide failure with persistent scatterers interferometry (PSI) and small baseline subset (SBAS) methods from Sentinel-1A data. For the SBAS, the deformation velocity for ascending and descending orbits varied between − 12 and 39 mm year−1 and between − 24 and 6 mm year−1, respectively. For the PSI, the deformation velocity for ascending and descending orbits varied between − 16 and 31 mm year−1 and between − 18 and 20 mm year−1, respectively. PSI and SBAS resulted in sharply changing line-of-sight displacement rates, which were interpreted as slope failure signs, from three months prior to the landslide. In addition, higher deformation velocities were observed in locations closer to landslide crack as expected. Based on our findings, we concluded that SAR interferometric time-series analysis have the makings of being used as a suitable approach in early discerning and avoiding potential slope failures in open-pit mining areas, when it is made carefully by observing the progress in mining activities by considering the other factors such as rainfall and earthquakes.