We study the effects associated with nonlinearity of f(R) gravity and of the background perfect fluid manifested in the Kaluza-Klein model with spherical compactification. The background space-time is perturbed by a massive gravitating source which is pressureless in the external space but has an arbitrary equation of state (EoS) parameter in the internal space. As characteristics of a nonlinear perfect fluid, the squared speeds of sound are not equal to the background EoS parameters in the external and internal spaces. In this setting, we find exact solutions to the linearized Einstein equations for the perturbed metric coefficients. For nonlinear models with f '' (R0)not equal 0, we show that these coefficients acquire correction terms in the form of two summed Yukawa potentials and that in the degenerated case, the solutions are reduced to a single Yukawa potential with some "corrupted" prefactor (in front of the exponential function), which, in addition to the standard 1/r term, contains a contribution independent of the three-dimensional distance r. In the linear f ' ' (R)=0 model, we generalize the previous studies to the case of an arbitrary nonlinear perfect fluid. We also investigate the particular case of the nonlinear background perfect fluid with zero speed of sound in the external space and demonstrate that a non-trivial solution exists only in the case of f ' ' (R0)=0.