11th IEEE International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IEEE IWCMC), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 24 - 25 August 2015, pp.1236-1241
In recent years, energy efficiency ("greenness") has become an important research topic in wireless networks. Environmental awareness and the increased cost of energy stimulate the research on this subject. In cellular networks, most of the power consumption takes place at the base stations (BSs). It is worth noting that the number of BSs has been steadily increasing since the 1G networks; moreover, this increase is expected to become even steeper in the foreseeable future with the advent of the small cell concept in the envisioned 5G networks. It is also worth noting that in cellular networks the traffic demand (load) in space and time is getting increasingly heterogeneous. As a result, parts of network will likely be lightly loaded at certain times. In such situations, it only makes sense to switch off as many BSs as possible without jeopardizing the key performance indicators.