Simultaneous Detection of Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxins in Industrial and Traditional Red and isot Pepper Flakes along with Dietary Exposure Risk Assessment

Oztekin S., Karbancıoğlu Güler H. F.

ACS OMEGA, vol.7, pp.31756-31766, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 7
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.2c02236
  • Journal Name: ACS OMEGA
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.31756-31766
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


This study focused on the co-occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in traditionally and industrially dried red pepper flakes (DRPFs) and isot pepper flakes (IPFs). Following the multitoxin immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up, high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was used to quantify AFs and OTA. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 0.11 and 0.18 mu g kg(-1) (AFB(1)), 0.04 and 0.08 mu g kg(-1 )(AFB(2)), 0.13 and 0.18 mu g kg(-1) (AFG(1)), 0.04 and 0.11 mu g kg(-1) (AFG(2)), and 0.10 and 0.21 mu g kg(-1) (OTA), respectively. AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and OTA were found to be positive in 93, 74, 17, and 94% of all samples, respectively. The contamination levels in positive samples ranged from 0.23 to 38.69, 0.04 to 2.14, 0.13 to 0.88, and 0.18 to 52.19 mu g kg(-1) for AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and OTA, respectively, while no AFG(2) was found above the detection limit (0.04 mu g kg(-1)). None of the industrial isot peppers exceeded the European Union limits, while the levels of AFB(2) (5 mu g kg(-1)), total AFs (10 mu g kg(-1)), and OTA (20 mu g kg(-1)) of the traditional peppers were above the limit by 30% (16/54), 26% (14/54), and 4% (2/54), respectively. Co-occurrence of AFB(1)-AFB(2)-OTA was the most frequent, accounting for 54% (29/54) of all samples. At the upper bound (UB), estimated average exposure to AFB(1), total AFs, and OTA was determined to be 0.175, 0.189, and 0.124 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) in all samples, respectively. The margin of exposure (MoE) value of AFB(1) and total AFs was found to be 977 and 909, indicating high health concerns compared to OTA (MoE >10,000). AFB(1) and total AFs may result in 0.0058 and 0.0062 liver cancer cases/100,000 person/year at UB, respectively, and weekly OTA exposure was 0.868 ng kg(-1 )bw, well below the provisional tolerable weekly intake, hence not of health concern. AFs exposure could endanger health, whereas OTA posed no toxicological concerns through dried red pepper consumption