Comparison of 4 V and 3 V electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 cathode particles in lithium ion batteries prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

Ebin B., BATTAGLIA V., Gürmen S.

CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, vol.40, no.5, pp.7029-7035, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 40 Issue: 5
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.12.032
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.7029-7035
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 particles were prepared by an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using nitrate salts at 800 degrees C in air atmosphere. Particle properties were characterized by the X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy. In addition, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic tests were performed to investigate the effects of structure on electrochemical behavior of both the 4 V and 3 V potential plateaus. Particle characterization studies show that the nanocrystalline particles have spinel structure of submicron size with spherical morphology. Particles, ranging between 75 and 1250 nm, were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles. Discharge capacity of LiMn2O4 particles between 3.0 and 4.5 V is 70 mA h g(-1) and cumulative capacity between 2.2 and 4.5 V is 111 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C rate. Discharge capacity at the 4 V potential region reduces to 47% of initial capacity, whereas cumulative capacity fade is 62% after 100 cycles at 0.5 C rate. Although nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 cathode particles exhibit good rate capability at the 4 V plateau, capacity decreased rapidly by increasing C-rates and cycling between 2.2 and 4.5 V. The loss of capacity can be attributed to phase transformation and dissolution of electrode material. Particle characterization of used cathodes showed that nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 electrodes partly dissolve during electrochemical cycling. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.