Effect of In Vitro Digestion on the Phenolic Content of Herbs Collected from Eastern Anatolia

Özkan G., Sakarya F. B., Tas D., Yurt B., ERCİŞLİ S., Çapanoğlu Güven E.

ACS Omega, vol.8, no.14, pp.12730-12738, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 14
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1021/acsomega.2c07881
  • Journal Name: ACS Omega
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.12730-12738
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Phenolic compounds in herbs have high antioxidant activities, and their consumption as functional foods may impact human health positively. The main objective of this study was to investigate the total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents as well as total antioxidant capacities (TAC) of bioactive compounds in various infusions prepared by herbs collected from the Bingöl region of Turkey during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. According to the results, while the highest TPC (5836 ± 373 mg GAE/100 g dw), TFC (2301 ± 158 CE/100 g, dw), and TAC (1347 mg TE/100 g dw) were obtained with Anchusa azurea Mill. species, Crataegus orientalis exhibited the lowest values (863 ± 24 mg GAE/100 g dw, 242 ± 23 CE/100 g dw, 735 ± 47 mg TE/100 g dw, respectively). Gallic acid and chlorogenic acid were the most common phenolic compounds in the infusions. In detail, the highest gallic acid was found in E. spectabilis M. Bieb (27.3 ± 0.9 mg/100 g of dw) and the highest chlorogenic acid was observed in F. elaeochytris (919.2 ± 35.7 mg/100 g of dw). After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, the highest bioaccessibility values of TPC and TFC were determined as 0.6- and 3-fold of the values observed in undigested C. orientalis, respectively. Besides, C. orientalis Pall. had the highest bioaccessibility of TAC according to the DPPH (6.7-fold increase) and CUPRAC (9.7-fold increase) assays. It can be concluded that the use of these medicinal herbs in human dietary intake due to their high bioactive compounds even after digestion can improve nutritional value and contribute to human health.