This research, which is divided into two parts, is a comparative study of the physical properties of cotton yarns produced by using new, modified and conventional spinning methods. The first part focuses on the performance of yarns with a final count of Ne 20 produced by conventional and compact spinning methods, whereas the second part focuses on the performance of Ne 30 combed ring, compact and vortex cotton yarns. Effects of the tested properties of the yarns on the performance of fabrics knitted have also been studied. Results showed that the structural differences of each yarn type conferred different tensile, evenness and hairiness values, and the differences in the yarn structure were reflected onto the fabric properties. © 2008, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.