A new approach to the preparation of two classes of block copolymers containing liquid-crystalline segments is reported. Copolymers 1 and 2 are constituted by polytetrahydrofuran and side-chain liquid-crystalline polymethacrylate blocks, whereas block copolymers 3 consist of polystyrene and main-chain liquid-crystalline polyester blocks. The synthetic procedures leading to copolymers 1-3 are extremely versatile and can be used to prepare a great variety of block copolymer architectures. In both copolymer classes the chemically different blocks are strongly segregated in the solid and melt phases and undergo individual phase transitions. The mesophase transition temperatures of the liquid-crystalline blocks are very similar to those of the corresponding homopolymers, and their enthalpies are directly proportional to the content of the liquid-crystalline block.