Energy-Efficient Bi-Objective Optimization Based on the Moth–Flame Algorithm for Cluster Head Selection in a Wireless Sensor Network

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Mistarihi M. Z., Bany Salameh H. A., Alsaadi M. A., Beyca Ö. F., Heilat L., Al-Shobaki R.

Processes, vol.11, no.2, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/pr11020534
  • Journal Name: Processes
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Communication Abstracts, INSPEC, Metadex, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: moth-flame algorithm, bi-objective optimization, salp swarm algorithm, whale optimization algorithm, LEACH protocol
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes


Designing an efficient wireless sensor network (WSN) system is considered a challenging problem due to the limited energy supply per sensor node. In this paper, the performance of several bi-objective optimization algorithms in providing energy-efficient clustering solutions that can extend the lifetime of sensor nodes were investigated. Specifically, we considered the use of the Moth–Flame Optimization (MFO) algorithm and the Salp Swarm Algorithm (SSA), as well as the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), in providing efficient cluster-head selection decisions. Compared to a reference scheme using the Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) protocol, the simulation results showed that integrating the MFO, SSA or WOA algorithms into WSN clustering protocols could significantly extend the WSN lifetime, which improved the nodes’ residual energy, the number of alive nodes, the fitness function and the network throughput. The results also revealed that the MFO algorithm outperformed the other algorithms in terms of energy efficiency.