Nitrate Removal by Zero-Valent Metals: A Comprehensive Review


Creative Commons License

Curcio G. M. , Limonti C., Siciliano A., Kabdasli I.

SUSTAINABILITY, vol.14, no.8, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/su14084500
  • Journal Name: SUSTAINABILITY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: chemical denitrification, nitrate, zero-valent aluminium, zero-valent copper, zero-valent iron, zero-valent magnesium, zero-valent zinc, NANOSCALE ZEROVALENT IRON, WASTE-WATER TREATMENT, AQUEOUS-SOLUTION, CHEMICAL-REDUCTION, COPPER NANOPARTICLES, ENHANCED NITRATE, ACTIVATED CARBON, GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION, COMPLETE DECHLORINATION, CONCENTRATED NITRATE
  • Istanbul Technical University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Nitrate is a widespread water contaminant that can pose environmental and health risks. Various conventional techniques can be applied for the removal of nitrate from water and wastewater, such as biological denitrification, ion exchange, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis. Compared to traditional methods, the chemical denitrification through zero-valent metals offers various advantages, such as lower costs, simplicity of management, and high efficiencies. The most utilized material for chemical denitrification is zero-valent iron (ZVI). Aluminium (ZVA), magnesium (ZVM), copper (ZVC), and zinc (ZVZ) are alternative zero-valent metals that are studied for the removal of nitrate from water as well as from aqueous solutions. To the best of our knowledge, a comprehensive work on the use of the various zero-valent materials that are employed for the removal of nitrate is still missing. Therefore, in the present review, the most recent papers concerning the use of zero-valent materials for chemical denitrification were analysed. The studies that dealt with zero-valent iron were discussed by considering microscopic (mZVI) and nanoscopic (nZVI) forms. For each Fe-0 form, the effects of the initial pH, the presence or absence of dissolved oxygen, the initial nitrate concentration, the temperature, and the dissolved ions on the nitrate removal process were separately evaluated. Finally, the different materials that were employed as support for the nanoparticles were examined. For the other zero-valent metals tested, a detailed description of the works present in the literature was carried out. A comparison of the various features that are related to each considered material was also made.