A new set of fluence-to-absorbed dose and fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients has been calculated for high-energy protons using the whole-body anatomical model VIP-Man, which was developed from the high-resolution transverse colour photographic images of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. For 10 monoenergetic proton beams between 20 and 10,000 MeV, organ dose calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX under six different irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left lateral, right lateral, isotropic and rotational. The absorbed dose results for 24 major organs of VIP-Man are presented and compared with those based on mathematical phantoms reported in the literature. The discrepancies (generally within 40%) in organ dose and effective dose estimates are attributed to the use of different transport models employed by different Monte Carlo codes. © Oxford University Press 2004; all rights reserved.